machine instructions

The main operations are available in almost all sets of instructions of the programming language Assembler.
space value into the register
transferring data from memory to register, or vice versa
reading and writing data from devices
add, subtract, multiply, or divide the values ​​of two registers, placing the result in register
combine two logical register value and / or
deny the value of the register arithmetic or logical NOT
change in the course of the program
go to a different place in the program (usually, instructions are processed in sequence)
move to another place, but save your current position as a point to return
return to the last point from which began the transition
Special instruction sets will often have one or more instructions for execution, because otherwise it takes a lot of instructions. examples:
moving large blocks of memory
complex calculations and / or floating point (sine, cosine, square root, etc.)
application of a simple operation (eg, addition) for the vector of values


ALGOL is a programming language originally developed in 1958, which was called by name “algorithmic process” basic programming problems. This is the short name of the algorithmic language. In a sense, it was a reaction to Fortran, the language was the forerunner of Pascal. He uses words as delimiters blocks and was the first to use a couple of “begin” and “end”. Programming for beginners.
There are three basic versions of the official Algol: Algol 58, Algol 60 and Algol 68 Of these, the programming language Algol 60 was the most influential (Algol 60 was the ancestor of Algol W, which was used for the development of Niklaus Wirth Pascal). Each official version of Algol is named after the year in which it was published. Programming for Dummies.
Algol was developed in conjunction with the Committee of European and American computer scientists. This language has at least three different syntax reference syntax, the syntax publications and syntax execution. For different syntax is allowed to use a different name keywords are allowed to use different separators integer and fractional parts (comma or period) for different countries as the basis for programming.
Programming language Algol 60 was released in 1960 by John Backus and Peter Nauros, who served on the committee that developed the ALGOL. Algol 60 has inspired designers for many languages​​, which were created later; quote in this context CAR Hoare “Algol had a tremendous influence on his successors.” The full quote, “This language is so ahead of its time, far ahead of its predecessors and is very close to his followers,” but is better known aphorism. Sometimes mistakenly attributed these words Edsger Dijkstra, which is understandable, since he served on the committee, the developer, and did equally well-known observations about language.
B5000 computer company Burroughs Corporation and its successors were and are computing machines with a stack of data intended for programming the extended ALGOL; really operating systems, or MCP (Master Control Program), as they are called, written on an extended Algol in 1961. Unisys Corporation still offers similar B5000 with the computers on which today operates MCP and supports multiple compilers for extended Algol.
The official programming language Algol 60 was not oredeleny input / output; concrete implementation of the language must have been to add some of his, but they vary from one implementation to another. Algol-68 may overcome this drawback absence of objects input / output (or “transput”).
Algol 60 allowed two types of parameter passing: call by value and call by name of innovation, from which it was later abandoned languages ​​successor. Call by name had certain limitations in contrast to the call by reference, which makes it undesirable feature of the language design. For example, in Algol 60 is not possible to create a procedure that will change the values ​​of the two parameters, if the actual parameters that are passed will be performing integer variable and an array indexed by the same integer variable.
John Backus developed the Backus normal form method descriptions of programming languages ​​specifically for ALGOL 58 It was revised and expanded by Peter Naur in the method of Backus-Naur for Algol 60 Algol 68 was determined using a two-level grammar kotruayu invented Adrian van Wijngaarden and which bears his name. Van Wijngaarden grammar uses a context-free grammar that generates an infinite number of realizations, which will reflect the particular Algol 68 as a program.



Algol (born ALGOL portmanteau. Algorithmic – algorithmic and English. Language – language), the name of a family of imperative programming languages ​​used in the preparation of programs for solving scientific and technical problems on a computer.

Algol was the first programming language that uses a pair of begin end to allocate blocks of expressions.